A Comprehensive Directory of
Restraint Techniques and Restraint Asphyxia Information

(Positional Asphyxia, Compressional Asphyxia, Traumatic Asphyxia,
Hobble or Hogtie, In-Custody Death, Sudden Custody Death,
Prone Restraint, Floor Restraint, Holding Deaths)


Plz Note: NEW HOST in 2014!
Our old webhost suffered a catastrophic meltdown in the fall of 2013 and we had to move to a new host.
If something is missing, PLZ Email Charly. Thanks!

Charly’s Email address CHANGED in October, 2010
Due to the vast number of pages and documents posted on, only the
MAIN PAGES of this website have the NEW EMAIL ADDRESS:



In my “RA Library” I’ve posted many of the Restraint-Asphyxia-Related journal articles, magazine
and newspaper articles (or otherwise-published “reports”) I’ve accumulated over the years.
Included in this collection are: MEDICAL & FORENSIC publications; LAW ENFORCEMENT
& SECURITY publications (including Taser info); NURSING and PSYCHIATRIC publications…
Basically, ANY publication I’ve found that contains information important to developing a better
understanding of
(and hopefully furthering the PREVENTION of) RESTRAINT ASPHYXIA DEATHS
is posted in this library.

PLZ NOTE: Anyone with a “BEEF” about the posting of ANY item in my RA Library
(or anywhere else on my Website!)
should FIRST visit this website’s
After that, if you STILL think you have legitimate cause to pursue some kind of “law suit” against me,
PLZ speak with your ATTORNEY about your belief, at your earliest convenience.

The World’s Most ACCURATE Definitions
of Restraint-Related TERMINOLOGY

First posted (FINALLY!), on January 13, 2011

A Three-Part article about Restraint Asphyxia: Why It Happens, and
How To AVOID Causing It!!! (Explained In Plain English.)

Restraint Asphyxia – Silent Killer; The Presentation!
An educational program invaluable to ALL emergency responders:
Prehospital EMS providers; Law Enforcement and Correctional personnel; Emergency
Department and Inhospital staff, Psychiatric Hospital staff; Employees of Residential or
School facilities serving developmentally-disabled individuals.
JJ Wohlers now offers Several Versions of this class

“All Tied Up And No Place To Go”
The Three Parts of this “GENERIC” Patient Restraint article address:
Medicolegal restraint & involuntary treatment issues, as well as
Detailed Explanations of safe and effective patient restraint TECHNIQUES.
A PDF File of “All Tied Up And No Place To Go”
All 3 parts in ONE place; thanx to Dustin Gammon, of Springfield, Missouri.
This material originally posted on September 1st, 1998.
The current version was last UPDATED in February, 2001.

All Tied Up And No Place To Go – The Presentation!
Patient Restraint and Involuntary Treatment Issues & Techniques
information, for all Prehospital and Inhospital Responders/EMS providers.
JJ Wohlers now offers this class

The A to Z of Patient Restraint!
Charly’s Half-Day and Full-Day Workshops on patient restraint.
Designed for all Prehospital and Inhospital Responders/EMS providers.
JJ Wohlers now offers this class

Restraint Asphyxia Near-Death Case Study
This SLENDER, entirely healthy, 20-year-old male entered RESPIRATORY ARREST
after being forcefully restrained in a PRONE POSITION – WITHOUT “Hogtie”!
for more than 2 minutes, but LESS THAN 3 MINUTES!
This material was originally posted here on August 30th, 1998.
An UPDATED file was posted here on January 1st, 2007.


These Protocols will likely NEVER be Finished by ME,
because I’ve RETIRED from this business.

The “Directory” page (the major “OUTLINE” for these protocols) is completed …
The “Introduction” is completed …
SO, although the separate sections are in “rough draft” form,
these files are SOMETHING for YOU to BEGIN working with.

FREE Restraint Asphyxia POWER POINT SLIDES!!!
Check out this offer, and then FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS to receive a
FREE COPY of My Restraint Asphyxia PPT Slides.
(Instructions for the best use of these slides are also provided here.)
This page originally posted here on May 30th, 2002.
NEW SLIDES AVAILABLE since November, 2006

“ASSUME THE POSITION” Exercise Directions and Safety Guidelines
Those who participate in these two exercises develop an impressive KINESTHETIC
sense (a personal “muscle memory”) of how it FEELS to be put into a position that:
Interferes with the BELLY’s ability to MOVE; and
Interferes with the function of the DIAPHRAGM
(the largest, most important, muscle of respiration); and
Once participants have gained this personal MUSCLE MEMORY awareness of the adverse effects
caused by inappropriate restraint positioning, their receptiveness to – and UNDERSTANDING of –
ALL subsequent restraint asphyxia information is DRAMATICALLY ENHANCED.
This information was originally posted on May 30th, 2002.
This information was updated on November 10th, 2006.

Two VITAL TIPS to Help Law Enforcement Officers
Avoid Causing Restraint Asphyxia

Citation: Miller CD; Two vital tips to help law enforcement officers avoid causing restraint asphyxia.
Restraint Asphyxia Newz Directory; January 1, 2007 (
If any law enforcement, security, or correctional (prison) service adopts these two Vital Tips as part of their
restraint protocol, their risk of personnel causing restraint asphyxia will become almost non-existent.
I apologize for not posting this SOONER!
This PDF file originally posted here on January 1st, 2007.

OH!Handcuffing Procedures & Preventing Restraint Asphyxia
CITATION: Campbell RK; Handcuffing Procedures
Miller CD; Preventing Restraint Asphyxia
“The Journal” Spring 2007; pgs 79-81.
I can’t find this POLICE journal online, and the story of how I received this segment
of its “Spring 2007” issue is rather BIZARRE.
Basically, this Houston-based Journal’s editor slightly EDITED and then PUBLISHED my
material – without asking my permission to do so. I never would have learned of this (I don’t
subscribe to this journal and it isn’t online). But, after publication, the editor received an
Email from an attorney who had read The Journal, and wished to speak me about my
material. So, the editor contacted me to accomplish that, and only THEN did I learn that
they’d published my material.
Since the essence of my Two Vital Tips remained unchanged, I didn’t grouse about their
unauthorized publication. Furthermore, RK Campbell entirely failed to address prone
handcuffing procedure dangers. So, it is good that my material was added to his. LOL

This article is in PDF form, and was originally posted in June, 2007.

A Directory of Public Documents Related to the Texas Medical Board’s
Suspension of Dr. Bryan E. Bledsoe’s License to Practice Medicine,
Due to His Narcotic Addiction.

This Directory Page provides links to a collection of PUBLIC DOCUMENTS obtained from the
Texas Medical Board’s website.
This Public Document Directory Page was originally posted on August 11th, 2008.
It was last updated on November 7th, 2010.

Charly Finally Responds To The Lies and Falsely Negative Innuendos
Posted By Quack and Crackpot Bloggers

In order to help OTHERS who have similarly been attacked by Anonymous Aliases,
Quack and Crackpot Bogus Bloggers, I have decided to Respond to the Misinformation
and Lies that have been posted on the Internet About Me, ONCE!
In Plain English.
Using small words, so that the small-minded people who posted the lies and misinformation can understand the facts.
This Opinion Paper was originally posted on March 31, 2010.

The Undeniably BOGUS and SHAM Website That Falsely
Claims To Offer the “Truth” About Prone Restraint Techniques

When he created it, Bruce Chapman attempted to hide his relationship to this website,
most likely because he is the President and Founder of a company that continues to train
people to perform … [insert drum roll here]Forceful PRONE Restraint.
It is My Opinion that; Chapman’s Bogus and Sham Website is nothing more
than an atrociously SleaZy Internet INFOMERCIAL!
However, unlike glamorous hair “Bump-Its” and super-absorbent “Sham Wows,”
the product Chapman promotes is potentially LETHAL.

The Original Version of this Opinion Paper was posted here on May 25, 2009.
An Updated Version was posted on June 19, 2009.

Ronald S. Federici Promotes the Use of Potentially Lethal
Forceful-Prone-Restraint Techniques for Restraining Children
(An Opinion Paper)

CITATION: Miller CD. Ronald S. Federici promotes the use of potentially lethal forceful-prone-restraint
techniques for restraining children (An Opinion Paper). Restraint Asphyxia Library; February, 2009.
Updated in May of 2009. Updated and REWRITTEN in June of 2010.
In February of 2009, I was advised that Ronald S. Federici was actively promoting the performance
of FORCEFUL-PRONE-RESTRAINT for the purpose of restraining CHILDREN – encouraging Parents
(and others) to subject CHILDREN to such potentially LETHAL means of restraint, in spite of
numerous CLINICAL MEDICAL RESEARCH reports and INVESTIGATORY articles that clearly
After reviewing Federici’s EGREGIOUS restraint techniques,
I wrote and posted this OPINION PAPER.

This Opinion Paper was originally posted here on February 24th, 2009.
It was updated in May of 2009. It was updated and REWRITTEN in June of 2010.

The VIDEO TAPE of a DEATH that Occurred Due To
By Law Enforcement Officers!

WARNING!!!: This is a “SNUFF” film!
This video is the GRAPHIC record of an individual’s DEATH caused by forceful-prone-restraint. It was filmed by a “COPS” TV program crew that accompanied West Palm Beach (Florida) Officer Raymond Shaw on October 19th, 2005.
The full video is just over 14 minutes long. It begins with Lewis awake and physically capable of running all over the place. However, due to the application of forceful-prone-restraint, Donald Lewis was irretrievably DEAD within 7 minutes of the video’s start.

Oh, SurpriZe!
The US District Court for the Southern District of Florida
ruled that the officers who killed Donald Lewis
qualified for IMMUNITY from prosecution.

The March 18th, 2008 Lewis Ruling:
From the record evidence, a reasonable juror could conclude that the officers used constitutionally excessive force in their confrontation with Lewis. However, because plaintiff has not demonstrated that the allegedly-violated right was clearly established, the officers are entitled to qualified immunity…


A NEAR-DEATH Forceful-Prone-Restraint SURVIVOR’s Story
For the FIRST TIME, in more than 12 years, a deadly restraint event “SURVIVOR”
contacted me, and provided a FIRST-HAND account of what it was like to suffer
– and survive – incidents of forceful-prone-restraint!
“During the restraint I got to the point where I was having difficulty breathing.
I did try to tell the staff, but no one appeared to listen. …
I truly believed I was about to die.”

This account originally posted here on April 5, 2005.

This is a FIRST-HAND account, written by an adult who SURVIVED multiple
“HOLDING THERAPY” incidents while a CHILD.
“I could not communicate that I couldn't breathe,
and was coming to the conclusion that I was
going to die right there on the floor.”

This account was originally posted on October 27, 2005.

Another FIRST-HAND account by someone who SURVIVED multiple
“HOLDING THERAPY” incidents while a CHILD.
“They forcefully held me down and hurt me while I
screamed and tried to get away. … I later figured out I was
being video taped. … I was too embarrassed to tell anyone,
but deep down inside it still haunts me to this day.
I could not breathe. I almost died.”

This account was originally posted on March 06, 2007.

Another Forceful-Prone-Restraint SURVIVOR’s Story
“Another thing I know is what would have happened if I had died.
There would be reports in the local news, both print and television.
Local people would have seen a seemingly-apologetic
[Name Deleted*]
saying that she had no choice. "Look honey, they killed a retard
in some school," people would say over morning coffee, then forget
about me before the end of their commute. There might even be a brief
investigation, which would turn up ‘NO EVIDENCE OF WRONGDOING’
on anyone's part.”

This account was originally posted on January 9, 2008.
*An “updated” version was posted on August 24, 2009.

Report of Surviving an Incident in 2009
“The police officer ignored me as I shouted continuously “I can’t breathe!”
He responded once, ‘Stop screaming!’ But I refused to listen to him
because I was dying and I wanted anyone who could hear my voice to
know the reason for my death is because ‘I can’t breathe!’ ”

This account was originally received & posted on September 18, 2015.

If YOU are a “SURVIVOR” of a restraint application that caused you to believe
you were “GOING TO DIE,” PLEASE Email me an account of your experience(s)!
After reading the accounts I’ve already posted, you can see that your “anonymity”
is easy to preserve, should you wish your name and location to remain private.

Email Charly at:

Untangle the Knots Within:
A Woman’s Passage
to Find Answers to her
Sister’s Death
in Police Custody
In the very early hours of a Sunday morning, a woman is found running on a boulevard
with no clothes on and screaming for help.  She is found by a security guard patrolling
the area.  He calls it in as an assault, but what transpires after that call only ends in a quick
death for her by the responders of the county she was found in.  All tied up and no place
to go. Eight minutes is all it took many responders to end her life and change the lives of
those that loved her.

CITATION: Cynthia M. Andersen. Untangle the knots within: A woman’s passage to find
answers to her sister’s death in police custody. AuthorHouse; Jan 22, 2009.
Buy It Here for $18.70
I haven’t read this book. But, it sounds like a worthwhile read. PLUS …
A portion of the proceeds from the book will go to a fund to help others
with legal fees when loved one’s lives are lost in Police Custody.

This BOOK LINK was originally posted here on January 29, 2009.

VIDEOS Showing Children’s Lives Being Threatened With Restraint

A 10:33 min “COURT TV” Video Segment that aired July 20th, 2000:
Restraint & Seclusion – Violent Lessons
[Oooh! A very young NANCY GRACE “anchored” this segment.]

A 3:42 min “HARD COPY” Video Segment (? aired in 1999):
Restraint & Seclusion – Deadly Restraints

Both of the above programs feature Jean Bowden’s daughter, ABBIE, and
Melanie Lyon’s son, MATTHEW – children who survived the asphyxial forms
of restraint they were subjected to.
The Hard Copy segment also features an Interview of a child who survived
to grow older and tell her story, as well as an Interview of a Mother who’s child
DIED due to restraint asphyxia.

ONE LETTER Yields Smart Changes!
This 2002 letter, sent by J T Stevens (of Douglasville, GA), is responsible for the inclusion of
Long Back Board Techniques in ALL my restraint articles and educational programs since then.
This is a demonstration of how important ONE LETTER can be!
[HEY! Any time YOU recognize something that ought to be changed, WRITE A LETTER!
Even “only one voice” CAN make a difference.]

This material originally posted here on February 21st, 2002.

On Thursday, November 14, 2002, I was sent a rather NASTY Email from Paul Schmidt,
a co-author of “The Effects of Positional Restraint on Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation.
J Emerg Med, March, 1999;17:777-82;203(1-2):1-9
This correspondence dramatically demonstrates how even “educated” individuals
(folks with big fat initials like “MS” or “MD” following their name) can harbor
entirely INAPPROPRIATE attitudes.
This material originally posted here on November 14th, 2002.

Crucifixion and it’s relationship to positional asphyxia
Many people have asked me about this relationship – and yes, there is one!
So, here’s the information I’ve found that (reasonably) explains it.
This material originally posted here on July 1st, 1998.


If you have any intention, whatsoever, of reproducing anything posted on this web site
(or you’re thinking of SUEing me for something like “copyright infringement”),
Trust me – It’s not a huge problem! Just the usual Legal Technicalities.


Email Charly at:

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